NYSORA Compendium of Regional Anesthesia - NYSORA | NYSORA

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NYSORA's Compendium of Regional Anesthesia

NYSORA's Compendium of Regional Anesthesia is the GOLD-STANDARD guide to a comprehensive and practical approach to regional anesthesia techniques and patient management.
  • PRACTICAL. Learn about regional anesthesia procedures in a practical, condensed, easy-to-navigate way with NYSORA’s newest teaching materials.
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Table of contents

  • Indications & Quick facts
  • Anatomy
  • Cross-sectional anatomy
  • Ultrasound anatomy
  • 3D Anatomy
  • Sensory & motor block
  • Landmarks & patient position
  • Technique
  • Local anesthetic choice
  • Tips & algorithm
  • Video
  • Trigeminal Nerve
  • Superficial Trigeminal Nerve Blocks
  • Block of the Frontal Nerve (Supraorbital and Supratrochlear Branches)
  • Block of the Infraorbital Nerve
  • Block of the Mental Nerve
  • Ultrasound-Guided Technique for Superficial Trigeminal Nerve Blocks
  • The Maxillary Nerve Block
  • The Mandibular Nerve Block
  • Regional Block of the Nose
  • Regional Blocks of the External Ear
  • Greater Occipital Nerve Block
  • Scalp Block
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Indications & Quick facts
  • Anatomy
  • Sensory & motor block
  • Key surgical considerations
  • Technique: Sub-tenon’s eye block
  • Technique: Retrobulbar eye block
  • Technique: Peribulbar eye block
  • Technique: Topical anesthesia
  • Technique: Subconjunctival anesthesia
  • Technique: Oculoplastic blocks
  • Local anesthetic choice
  • Complications
  • Tips
  • Indications & Quick facts
  • Anatomy
  • 3D-Anatomy
  • Sensory & motor block
  • Landmarks & patient position
  • Technique
  • Local anesthetic choice
  • Tips & algorithm
  • Videos
  • Indications & Quick facts
  • Anatomy
  • 3D-Anatomy
  • Sensory & motor block
  • Landmarks & patient position
  • Technique
  • Local anesthetic choice
  • Tips & algorithm
  • Videos
  • Indications & Quick facts
  • Anatomy
  • 3D-Anatomy
  • Sensory & motor block
  • Landmarks & patient position
  • Technique
  • Local anesthetic choice
  • Tips & algorithm
  • Video
  • Indications & Quick facts
  • Anatomy
  • Sensory & motor block
  • Landmarks & patient position
  • Technique
  • Local anesthetic choice
  • Tips & algorithm
  • Indications & Quick facts
  • Anatomy
  • Ultrasound anatomy
  • Sensory & motor block
  • Landmarks & patient position
  • Technique: Suprascapular nerve block
  • Technique: Axillary nerve block
  • Local anesthetic choice
  • Tips & algorithm
  • Video
  • Indications & Quick facts
  • Anatomy
  • 3D-Anatomy
  • Sensory & motor block
  • Landmarks & patient position
  • Technique
  • Local anesthetic choice
  • Tips & algorithm
  • Videos
  • Indications & Quick facts
  • Anatomy
  • Sensory & motor block
  • Landmarks & patient position
  • Technique: Radial nerve
  • Technique: Median nerve
  • Technique: Ulnar nerve
  • Local anesthetic choice
  • Tips & algorithm
  • Indications & Quick facts
  • Anatomy
  • Sensory & motor block
  • Landmarks & patient position
  • Technique: Median nerve block
  • Technique: Ulnar nerve block
  • Technique: Radial nerve block
  • Local anesthetic choice
  • Tips & algorithm
  • Videos
  • Indications & Quick facts
  • Anatomy
  • Mechanism of Action
  • Indications
  • Contraindications
  • Technique
  • Local anesthetic choice
  • Indications & Quick facts
  • Anatomy
  • 3D-Anatomy
  • Sensory & motor block
  • Landmarks & patient position
  • Technique: PEC I block
  • Technique: PEC II block
  • Technique: Serratus anterior plane block
  • Local anesthetic choice
  • Tips & algorithm
  • Videos
  • Indications & Quick facts
  • Anatomy
  • 3D-Anatomy
  • Sensory & motor block
  • Landmarks & patient position
  • Subcostal TAP block
  • Lateral TAP block
  • Posterior TAP block
  • Ilioinguinal-iliohypogastric block (Anterior TAP)
  • Local anesthetic choice
  • Tips & algorithm
  • Videos
  • Indications & Quick facts
  • Anatomy
  • Sensory & motor block
  • Landmarks & patient position
  • Technique
  • Quadratus Lumborum Block 1
  • Quadratus Lumborum Block 2
  • Transmuscular QL Block
  • Local anesthetic choice
  • Tips & algorithm
  • Video
  • Indications & Quick facts
  • Anatomy
  • Sensory & motor block
  • Landmarks & patient position
  • Technique
  • Local anesthetic choice
  • Tips & algorithm
  • Videos
  • Indications & Quick facts
  • Anatomy
  • 3D-Anatomy
  • Sensory & motor block
  • Landmarks & patient position
  • Technique
  • Local anesthetic choice
  • Tips & algorithm
  • Video
  • Transverse In-Plane Technique
  • Anatomy and General Considerations
  • Longitudinal Out-of-Plane and In-Plane Techniques
  • References
  • Indications & Quick facts
  • Anatomy
  • Sensory & motor block
  • Landmarks & patient position
  • Technique
  • Infrainguinal approach
  • Suprainguinal approach
  • Local anesthetic choice
  • Tips & algorithm
  • Indications & Quick facts
  • Anatomy
  • Sensory & motor block
  • Landmarks & patient position
  • Technique
  • Local anesthetic choice
  • Tips & algorithm
  • Video
  • Indications & Quick facts
  • Anatomy
  • 3D-Anatomy
  • Sensory & motor block
  • Landmarks & patient position
  • Technique
  • Local anesthetic choice
  • Tips & algorithm
  • Video
  • Indications & Quick facts
  • Anatomy
  • Sensory & motor block
  • Landmarks & patient position
  • Technique
  • Local anesthetic choice
  • Tips & algorithm
  • Videos
  • Indications & Quick facts
  • Anatomy
  • 3D-Anatomy
  • Sensory & motor block
  • Landmarks & patient position
  • Technique
  • Local anesthetic choice
  • Tips & algorithm
  • Videos
  • Indications & Quick facts
  • Anatomy
  • Ultrasound anatomy
  • Sensory & motor block
  • Landmarks & patient position
  • Technique
  • Local anesthetic choice
  • Tips & algorithm
  • Video
  • Indications & Quick facts
  • Anatomy
  • Sensory & motor block
  • Landmarks & patient position
  • Technique
  • Tibial nerve block
  • Deep peroneal nerve block
  • Superficial peroneal nerve block
  • Sural nerve block
  • Saphenous nerve block
  • Local anesthetic choice
  • Tips & algorithm
  • Video
  • Indications & Quick facts
  • Anatomy
  • Sensory & motor block
  • Landmarks & patient position
  • Technique
  • Local anesthetic choice
  • Tips
  • Video
  • Indications & Quick facts
  • Anatomy
  • Sensory & Motor Block
  • Landmarks & Patient Position
  • Technique
  • Local Anesthetic Choice
  • Tips
  • Video
  • Indications & Quick facts
  • Anatomy
  • Sensory & motor block
  • Landmarks & patient position
  • Technique
  • Local anesthetic choice
  • Tips
  • Video
  • Indications & Quick facts
  • Anatomy
  • Sensory & motor block
  • Landmarks & patient position
  • Technique
  • Local anesthetic choice
  • Tips
  • Video
  • Indications & Quick facts
  • Anatomy
  • Sensory & Motor Block
  • Landmarks & Patient Position
  • Technique
  • Local Anesthetic Choice
  • Tips
  • Video
  • The Concept of Local Infiltration Analgesia
  • Evidence-based Information on Efficacy and Safety of Local Infiltration Analgesia
  • Potential and Documented Pros and Cons of Local Infiltration Analgesia and Alternatives
  • Local infiltration analgesia for hip arthroplasty
  • Local infiltration analgesia for knee arthroplasty
  • LIA in total knee arthroplasty
  • LIA in total hip arthroplasty
  • References
  • Indications & Quick facts
  • Anatomy
  • Mechanism of action
  • Pharmacology
  • Indications
  • Contraindications
  • Sensory & motor block for specific surgeries
  • Ultrasound-guided spinal anesthesia technique
  • Local anesthetic dosing for different indications
  • Indications & Quick facts
  • Anatomy
  • Mechanism of action
  • Pharmacokinetics
  • Pharmacodynamics
  • Indications
  • Indications – Lumbar epidural anesthesia
  • Indications – Thoracic epidural anesthesia
  • Indications – Uncommon medical disorders and clinical scenarios
  • Contraindications
  • Technique – Thoracic and Lumbar Epidural block
  • Technique – Cervical Epidural block
  • Local Anesthetic Choice and Dosing
  • Problem-solving
  • Complications and common side effects
  • Introduction
  • Clinical applications of CSE
  • Advantages of CSE
  • Epidural Volume Extension: A Modification of the CSE
  • Sequential CSE
  • CSE for High-Risk Patients
  • Functional Anatomy Related to CSE
  • Technique
  • Needle-Through-Needle Technique
  • Separate Needle Technique
  • Comparison of Techniques
  • Techniques to Improve the Success and Safety of CSE
  • Drugs for CSE
  • Complications and Concerns of the CSE Technique
  • Complications Associated With Spinal Migration of the Epidural Catheter or Intrathecal Administration of Epidural Drugs
  • Hypotension
  • Neurological Injury
  • Postdural Puncture Headache
  • Complications Related to Labor Analgesia
  • Equipment
  • Controversial Topics in CSE Technique
  • Summary
  • References
  • Introduction
  • Anatomic Considerations
  • Indications for Caudal Epidural Block
  • Technique of Caudal Epidural Block
  • Ultrasound-Guided Caudal Block
  • Characteristics of Caudal Epidural Block in Adults
  • Caudal Block for Labor Analgesia
  • Indications for Caudal Epidural Analgesia in Children
  • Applications of Caudal Epidural Block in Acute and Chronic Pain Management
  • Complications Associated With Caudal Epidural Block
  • Summary
  • References
  • Anatomy
  • Local Anesthetics
  • Adverse Effects
  • Relative Contraindications
  • Spinal Anesthesia for Pediatric Patients: Technique
  • Assessing the Block
  • Clinical Uses
  • References
  • Anatomy and Physiological Implications
  • Local Anesthetics for Epidural Anesthesia in Children
  • Adjuvants for Epidural Anesthesia in Children
  • Complications Associated with Epidural Anesthesia
  • Epidural block for Pediatric Surgery: Techniques
  • Aspiration and Test Dose
  • Radiographic Methods
  • Epidural Stimulation Test (Tsui Test) and Epidural ECG Technique
  • Ultrasound-Guided Techniques
  • Epidural Approaches
  • Caudal Epidural Analgesia: Single-Injection Technique
  • Choice of Needle for Caudal Analgesia
  • Technique for Performing a Single-Injection Caudal Epidural Block
  • Confirmation of Correct Local Anesthetic Distribution
  • Caudal Epidural Analgesia: Continuous Technique
  • Lumbar Epidural Anesthesia
  • Lumbar-to-Thoracic Epidural Approach
  • Thoracic Epidural Analgesia
  • Thoracic Epidural Analgesia: Midline Approach
  • Postoperative Epidural Infusion Management
  • References
  • Introduction
  • Mechanisms of failure
  • 1. Unsuccessful lumbar puncture
  • 2. Solution injection errors
  • 3. Inadequate intrathecal spread
  • 4. Drug failure
  • 5. Failure of subsequent management
  • Management of failed spinal anesthesia
  • Introduction
  • History and Current Relevance
  • Pathophysiology
  • Clinical Presentation and Characteristics
  • Onset
  • Presentation
  • Associated Symptoms
  • Risk Factors
  • Patient Characteristics
  • Procedural Details
  • Prevention
  • General Measures
  • Spinal Technique
  • Epidural Technique
  • Measures to Reduce the Risk of PDPH After ADP
  • Stylet Replacement
  • Subarachnoid Saline
  • Intravenous Cosyntropin
  • Limiting/Avoiding Pushing
  • Intrathecal Catheters
  • Epidural Salene
  • Epidural Opiates
  • Prophylactic Epidural Blood Patch
  • Diagnostic Evaluation
  • Treatment
  • Time
  • Supportive Measures
  • Pharmacologic Therapies
  • Epidural Therapies
  • Epidural Saline
  • Epidural Blood Patch
  • Alternative Treatment Options to EBP
  • Persistent or Recurrent PDPH
  • When to Seek Further Consultation
  • Summary
  • References
  • Organization of the peripheral nervous system
  • Neurons
  • Schwann cells
  • Classification of nerve fibers
  • Myelinated nerve fibers
  • Unmyelinated nerve fibers
  • Connective tissue investments of peripheral nerves
  • Epineurium
  • Perineurium
  • Endoneurium
  • The central-peripheral transition region
  • Vascular supply of peripheral nerves
  • Age-related changes in peripheral nerves
  • Response of peripheral nerves to injury
  • Epinephrine mixture preparation
  • Classification
  • Mechanisms of injury
  • Prevention
  • Prevention
  • Detection
  • Treatment
  • Lipid emulsion dosing
  • Preoperative & Intraoperative Management
  • Wrist Block Technique Algorithm
  • Preoperative Management
  • Intraoperative & Postoperative Management
  • Preoperative management
  • Intraoperative and postoperative management
  • Preoperative management
  • Intraoperative and postoperative management
  • Physiologic Changes of Pregnancy
  • Changes in the Cardiovascular System
  • Changes in the Respiratory System
  • Metabolic Changes
  • Changes in the Gastrointestinal System
  • Endocrine Changes Influencing Plasma Volume, Blood Composition, and Glucose Metabolism
  • Altered Drug Responses in Pregnancy
  • Placental Transfer of Local Anesthetics
  • Risk of Drug Exposure: Fetus Versus Newborn
  • Anesthesia for Labor and Vaginal Delivery
  • Systemic Analgesia
  • Regional Analgesia Techniques
  • Epidural Analgesia
  • Spinal Analgesia
  • Combined Spinal–Epidural Analgesia
  • Paracervical Block
  • Paravertebral Lumbar Sympathetic Block
  • Pudendal Nerve Block
  • Anesthesia for Cesarean Section Delivery
  • Advantages of Regional Anesthesia in the Obstetric Patient
  • Spinal Anesthesia
  • Lumbar Epidural Anesthesia
  • Local Anesthetic Choices
  • Anesthetic Complications
  • Regional Anesthesia in Complicated Pregnancy
  • Preeclampsia-Eclampsia
  • Antepartum Hemorrhage
  • Preterm Delivery
  • Nonobstetric Surgery in the Pregnant Woman
  • Summary
  • References
  • The Cardiovascular Effects Of Regional Anesthesia
  • Lumbar Epidural Anesthesia
  • Intrathecal Anesthesia
  • Thoracic Blocks (Paravertebral and Intercostal)
  • Upper Extremity Regional Anesthesia and Cardiac Disease
  • Brachial Plexus block
  • Lower Extremity Regional Anesthesia and Cardiac Disease
  • Regional Anesthesia and Cardiac Surgery
  • The Patient With Cardiac Disease Presenting For Noncardiac Surgery
  • The Patient with Hypertension/Left Ventricular Hypertrophy
  • The Patient with Ischemic Heart Disease
  • The Patient with Valvular Heart Disease Regurgitant Valvular Disease
  • Stenotic Valvular Disease
  • The Adult Patient with Congenital Heart Disease
  • Summary
  • References
  • Physiologic Changes Associated With Aging and Considerations for Regional Anesthesia/Analgesia
  • Nervous System Function
  • Cardiovascular Function
  • Pulmonary Function
  • Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Changes in the Elderly
  • Multimodal Drug Therapy and the Elderly
  • Physiology and the Perception of Pain in the Elderly and Clinical Implications
  • Assessment of Pain in Older Cognitively Impaired Patients
  • Considerations for the Use of Peripheral Regional and Neural block in Elderly Patients
  • Epidural Anesthesia and Analgesia
  • Intrathecal Opioid Analgesia
  • Regional Anesthesia and Analgesia Using Peripheral Nerve and Nerve Plexus block
  • Summary
  • References

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NYSORA Compendium of Regional Anesthesia

NYSORA Compendium of Regional Anesthesia is the GOLD-STANDARD text for a comprehensive and practical approach to regional anesthesia techniques and patient management.