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NYSORA Compendium of Regional Anesthesia

NYSORA Compendium of Regional Anesthesia is the GOLD-STANDARD text for a comprehensive and practical approach to regional anesthesia techniques and patient management.
  • PRACTICAL. Learn about regional anesthesia procedures in a practical, condensed, easy to navigate way with NYSORA’s newest teaching materials.
  • UNDERSTAND the logic behind regional anesthesia techniques with NYSORA’s reversed ultrasound anatomy illustrations and animations.
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NYSORA Compendium of Regional Anesthesia, Review

Introduction NYSORA Compendium of Regional Anesthesia The first edition of NYSORA’s Textbook of Regional Anesthesia and Acute Pain Management was a compendium of knowledge in regional anesthesia that quickly became a gold standard for students, practitioners, and test-takers alike. The material in this edition has been organized into thematic sections. We have added numerous new anatomical dissections, diagrams, and functional anatomy illustrations developed by the NYSORA team for practitioners of regional anesthesia and pain medicine. NYSORA’s teaching of these techniques is based on the principles of injecting local anesthetics within connective tissue sheaths; consequently, significant effort was invested in functional regional anesthesia anatomy and in illustrations that demonstrate the importance of this concept.  The sections represent a

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Table of contents

  • Indications & Quick facts
  • Anatomy
  • Cross-sectional anatomy
  • Ultrasound anatomy
  • 3D Anatomy
  • Sensory & motor block
  • Landmarks & patient position
  • Technique
  • Local anesthetic choice
  • Tips & algorithm
  • Video
  • Trigeminal Nerve
  • Superficial Trigeminal Nerve Blocks
  • Block of the Frontal Nerve (Supraorbital and Supratrochlear Branches)
  • Block of the Infraorbital Nerve
  • Block of the Mental Nerve
  • Ultrasound-Guided Technique for Superficial Trigeminal Nerve Blocks
  • The Maxillary Nerve Block
  • The Mandibular Nerve Block
  • Regional Block of the Nose
  • Regional Blocks of the External Ear
  • Greater Occipital Nerve Block
  • Scalp Block
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Indications & Quick facts
  • Anatomy
  • Sensory & motor block
  • Key surgical considerations
  • Technique: Sub-tenon’s eye block
  • Technique: Retrobulbar eye block
  • Technique: Peribulbar eye block
  • Technique: Topical anesthesia
  • Technique: Subconjunctival anesthesia
  • Technique: Oculoplastic blocks
  • Local anesthetic choice
  • Complications
  • Tips
  • Indications & Quick facts
  • Anatomy
  • 3D-Anatomy
  • Sensory & motor block
  • Landmarks & patient position
  • Technique
  • Local anesthetic choice
  • Tips & algorithm
  • Videos
  • Indications & Quick facts
  • Anatomy
  • 3D-Anatomy
  • Sensory & motor block
  • Landmarks & patient position
  • Technique
  • Local anesthetic choice
  • Tips & algorithm
  • Videos
  • Indications & Quick facts
  • Anatomy
  • 3D-Anatomy
  • Sensory & motor block
  • Landmarks & patient position
  • Technique
  • Local anesthetic choice
  • Tips & algorithm
  • Video
  • Indications & Quick facts
  • Anatomy
  • Sensory & motor block
  • Landmarks & patient position
  • Technique
  • Local anesthetic choice
  • Tips & algorithm
  • Indications & Quick facts
  • Anatomy
  • Ultrasound anatomy
  • Sensory & motor block
  • Landmarks & patient position
  • Technique: Suprascapular nerve block
  • Technique: Axillary nerve block
  • Local anesthetic choice
  • Tips & algorithm
  • Video
  • Indications & Quick facts
  • Anatomy
  • 3D-Anatomy
  • Sensory & motor block
  • Landmarks & patient position
  • Technique
  • Local anesthetic choice
  • Tips & algorithm
  • Videos
  • Indications & Quick facts
  • Anatomy
  • Sensory & motor block
  • Landmarks & patient position
  • Technique: Radial nerve
  • Technique: Median nerve
  • Technique: Ulnar nerve
  • Local anesthetic choice
  • Tips & algorithm
  • Indications & Quick facts
  • Anatomy
  • Sensory & motor block
  • Landmarks & patient position
  • Technique: Median nerve block
  • Technique: Ulnar nerve block
  • Technique: Radial nerve block
  • Local anesthetic choice
  • Tips & algorithm
  • Videos
  • Indications & Quick facts
  • Anatomy
  • Mechanism of Action
  • Indications
  • Contraindications
  • Technique
  • Local anesthetic choice
  • Indications & Quick facts
  • Anatomy
  • 3D-Anatomy
  • Sensory & motor block
  • Landmarks & patient position
  • Technique: PEC I block
  • Technique: PEC II block
  • Technique: Serratus anterior plane block
  • Local anesthetic choice
  • Tips & algorithm
  • Videos
  • Indications & Quick facts
  • Anatomy
  • 3D-Anatomy
  • Sensory & motor block
  • Landmarks & patient position
  • Subcostal TAP block
  • Lateral TAP block
  • Posterior TAP block
  • Ilioinguinal-iliohypogastric block (Anterior TAP)
  • Local anesthetic choice
  • Tips & algorithm
  • Videos
  • Indications & Quick facts
  • Anatomy
  • Sensory & motor block
  • Landmarks & patient position
  • Technique
  • Quadratus Lumborum Block 1
  • Quadratus Lumborum Block 2
  • Transmuscular QL Block
  • Local anesthetic choice
  • Tips & algorithm
  • Video
  • Indications & Quick facts
  • Anatomy
  • Sensory & motor block
  • Landmarks & patient position
  • Technique
  • Local anesthetic choice
  • Tips & algorithm
  • Videos
  • Indications & Quick facts
  • Anatomy
  • 3D-Anatomy
  • Sensory & motor block
  • Landmarks & patient position
  • Technique
  • Local anesthetic choice
  • Tips & algorithm
  • Video
  • Transverse In-Plane Technique
  • Anatomy and General Considerations
  • Longitudinal Out-of-Plane and In-Plane Techniques
  • References
  • Indications & Quick facts
  • Anatomy
  • Sensory & motor block
  • Landmarks & patient position
  • Technique
  • Infrainguinal approach
  • Suprainguinal approach
  • Local anesthetic choice
  • Tips & algorithm
  • Indications & Quick facts
  • Anatomy
  • Sensory & motor block
  • Landmarks & patient position
  • Technique
  • Local anesthetic choice
  • Tips & algorithm
  • Video
  • Indications & Quick facts
  • Anatomy
  • 3D-Anatomy
  • Sensory & motor block
  • Landmarks & patient position
  • Technique
  • Local anesthetic choice
  • Tips & algorithm
  • Video
  • Indications & Quick facts
  • Anatomy
  • Sensory & motor block
  • Landmarks & patient position
  • Technique
  • Local anesthetic choice
  • Tips & algorithm
  • Videos
  • Indications & Quick facts
  • Anatomy
  • 3D-Anatomy
  • Sensory & motor block
  • Landmarks & patient position
  • Technique
  • Local anesthetic choice
  • Tips & algorithm
  • Videos
  • Indications & Quick facts
  • Anatomy
  • Ultrasound anatomy
  • Sensory & motor block
  • Landmarks & patient position
  • Technique
  • Local anesthetic choice
  • Tips & algorithm
  • Video
  • Indications & Quick facts
  • Anatomy
  • Sensory & motor block
  • Landmarks & patient position
  • Technique
  • Tibial nerve block
  • Deep peroneal nerve block
  • Superficial peroneal nerve block
  • Sural nerve block
  • Saphenous nerve block
  • Local anesthetic choice
  • Tips & algorithm
  • Video
  • Indications & Quick facts
  • Anatomy
  • Sensory & motor block
  • Landmarks & patient position
  • Technique
  • Local anesthetic choice
  • Tips
  • Video
  • Indications & Quick facts
  • Anatomy
  • Sensory & Motor Block
  • Landmarks & Patient Position
  • Technique
  • Local Anesthetic Choice
  • Tips
  • Video
  • Indications & Quick facts
  • Anatomy
  • Sensory & motor block
  • Landmarks & patient position
  • Technique
  • Local anesthetic choice
  • Tips
  • Video
  • Indications & Quick facts
  • Anatomy
  • Sensory & motor block
  • Landmarks & patient position
  • Technique
  • Local anesthetic choice
  • Tips
  • Video
  • Indications & Quick facts
  • Anatomy
  • Sensory & Motor Block
  • Landmarks & Patient Position
  • Technique
  • Local Anesthetic Choice
  • Tips
  • Video
  • The Concept of Local Infiltration Analgesia
  • Evidence-based Information on Efficacy and Safety of Local Infiltration Analgesia
  • Potential and Documented Pros and Cons of Local Infiltration Analgesia and Alternatives
  • Local infiltration analgesia for hip arthroplasty
  • Local infiltration analgesia for knee arthroplasty
  • LIA in total knee arthroplasty
  • LIA in total hip arthroplasty
  • References
  • Indications & Quick facts
  • Anatomy
  • Mechanism of action
  • Pharmacology
  • Indications
  • Contraindications
  • Sensory & motor block for specific surgeries
  • Ultrasound-guided spinal anesthesia technique
  • Local anesthetic dosing for different indications
  • Indications & Quick facts
  • Anatomy
  • Mechanism of action
  • Pharmacokinetics
  • Pharmacodynamics
  • Indications
  • Indications – Lumbar epidural anesthesia
  • Indications – Thoracic epidural anesthesia
  • Indications – Uncommon medical disorders and clinical scenarios
  • Contraindications
  • Technique – Thoracic and Lumbar Epidural Blockade
  • Technique – Cervical Epidural Blockade
  • Local Anesthetic Choice and Dosing
  • Problem-solving
  • Complications and common side effects
  • Introduction
  • Clinical applications of CSE
  • Advantages of CSE
  • Epidural Volume Extension: A Modification of the CSE
  • Sequential CSE
  • CSE for High-Risk Patients
  • Functional Anatomy Related to CSE
  • Technique
  • Needle-Through-Needle Technique
  • Separate Needle Technique
  • Comparison of Techniques
  • Techniques to Improve the Success and Safety of CSE
  • Drugs for CSE
  • Complications and Concerns of the CSE Technique
  • Complications Associated With Spinal Migration of the Epidural Catheter or Intrathecal Administration of Epidural Drugs
  • Hypotension
  • Neurological Injury
  • Postdural Puncture Headache
  • Complications Related to Labor Analgesia
  • Equipment
  • Controversial Topics in CSE Technique
  • Summary
  • References
  • Introduction
  • Anatomic Considerations
  • Indications for Caudal Epidural Block
  • Technique of Caudal Epidural Block
  • Ultrasound-Guided Caudal Block
  • Characteristics of Caudal Epidural Block in Adults
  • Caudal Block for Labor Analgesia
  • Indications for Caudal Epidural Analgesia in Children
  • Applications of Caudal Epidural Block in Acute and Chronic Pain Management
  • Complications Associated With Caudal Epidural Block
  • Summary
  • References
  • Anatomy
  • Local Anesthetics
  • Adverse Effects
  • Relative Contraindications
  • Spinal Anesthesia for Pediatric Patients: Technique
  • Assessing the Block
  • Clinical Uses
  • References
  • Anatomy and Physiological Implications
  • Local Anesthetics for Epidural Anesthesia in Children
  • Adjuvants for Epidural Anesthesia in Children
  • Complications Associated with Epidural Anesthesia
  • Epidural Blockade for Pediatric Surgery: Techniques
  • Aspiration and Test Dose
  • Radiographic Methods
  • Epidural Stimulation Test (Tsui Test) and Epidural ECG Technique
  • Ultrasound-Guided Techniques
  • Epidural Approaches
  • Caudal Epidural Analgesia: Single-Injection Technique
  • Choice of Needle for Caudal Analgesia
  • Technique for Performing a Single-Injection Caudal Epidural Block
  • Confirmation of Correct Local Anesthetic Distribution
  • Caudal Epidural Analgesia: Continuous Technique
  • Lumbar Epidural Anesthesia
  • Lumbar-to-Thoracic Epidural Approach
  • Thoracic Epidural Analgesia
  • Thoracic Epidural Analgesia: Midline Approach
  • Postoperative Epidural Infusion Management
  • References
  • Introduction
  • Mechanisms of failure
  • 1. Unsuccessful lumbar puncture
  • 2. Solution injection errors
  • 3. Inadequate intrathecal spread
  • 4. Drug failure
  • 5. Failure of subsequent management
  • Management of failed spinal anesthesia
  • Introduction
  • History and Current Relevance
  • Pathophysiology
  • Clinical Presentation and Characteristics
  • Onset
  • Presentation
  • Associated Symptoms
  • Risk Factors
  • Patient Characteristics
  • Procedural Details
  • Prevention
  • General Measures
  • Spinal Technique
  • Epidural Technique
  • Measures to Reduce the Risk of PDPH After ADP
  • Stylet Replacement
  • Subarachnoid Saline
  • Intravenous Cosyntropin
  • Limiting/Avoiding Pushing
  • Intrathecal Catheters
  • Epidural Salene
  • Epidural Opiates
  • Prophylactic Epidural Blood Patch
  • Diagnostic Evaluation
  • Treatment
  • Time
  • Supportive Measures
  • Pharmacologic Therapies
  • Epidural Therapies
  • Epidural Saline
  • Epidural Blood Patch
  • Alternative Treatment Options to EBP
  • Persistent or Recurrent PDPH
  • When to Seek Further Consultation
  • Summary
  • References
  • Organization of the peripheral nervous system
  • Neurons
  • Schwann cells
  • Classification of nerve fibers
  • Myelinated nerve fibers
  • Unmyelinated nerve fibers
  • Connective tissue investments of peripheral nerves
  • Epineurium
  • Perineurium
  • Endoneurium
  • The central-peripheral transition region
  • Vascular supply of peripheral nerves
  • Age-related changes in peripheral nerves
  • Response of peripheral nerves to injury
  • Epinephrine mixture preparation
  • Classification
  • Mechanisms of injury
  • Prevention
  • Prevention
  • Detection
  • Treatment
  • Lipid emulsion dosing
  • Preoperative & Intraoperative Management
  • Wrist Block Technique Algorithm
  • Preoperative Management
  • Intraoperative & Postoperative Management
  • Preoperative management
  • Intraoperative and postoperative management
  • Preoperative management
  • Intraoperative and postoperative management
  • Physiologic Changes of Pregnancy
  • Changes in the Cardiovascular System
  • Changes in the Respiratory System
  • Metabolic Changes
  • Changes in the Gastrointestinal System
  • Endocrine Changes Influencing Plasma Volume, Blood Composition, and Glucose Metabolism
  • Altered Drug Responses in Pregnancy
  • Placental Transfer of Local Anesthetics
  • Risk of Drug Exposure: Fetus Versus Newborn
  • Anesthesia for Labor and Vaginal Delivery
  • Systemic Analgesia
  • Regional Analgesia Techniques
  • Epidural Analgesia
  • Spinal Analgesia
  • Combined Spinal–Epidural Analgesia
  • Paracervical Block
  • Paravertebral Lumbar Sympathetic Block
  • Pudendal Nerve Block
  • Anesthesia for Cesarean Section Delivery
  • Advantages of Regional Anesthesia in the Obstetric Patient
  • Spinal Anesthesia
  • Lumbar Epidural Anesthesia
  • Local Anesthetic Choices
  • Anesthetic Complications
  • Regional Anesthesia in Complicated Pregnancy
  • Preeclampsia-Eclampsia
  • Antepartum Hemorrhage
  • Preterm Delivery
  • Nonobstetric Surgery in the Pregnant Woman
  • Summary
  • References
  • The Cardiovascular Effects Of Regional Anesthesia
  • Lumbar Epidural Anesthesia
  • Intrathecal Anesthesia
  • Thoracic Blocks (Paravertebral and Intercostal)
  • Upper Extremity Regional Anesthesia and Cardiac Disease
  • Brachial Plexus Blockade
  • Lower Extremity Regional Anesthesia and Cardiac Disease
  • Regional Anesthesia and Cardiac Surgery
  • The Patient With Cardiac Disease Presenting For Noncardiac Surgery
  • The Patient with Hypertension/Left Ventricular Hypertrophy
  • The Patient with Ischemic Heart Disease
  • The Patient with Valvular Heart Disease Regurgitant Valvular Disease
  • Stenotic Valvular Disease
  • The Adult Patient with Congenital Heart Disease
  • Summary
  • References
  • Physiologic Changes Associated With Aging and Considerations for Regional Anesthesia/Analgesia
  • Nervous System Function
  • Cardiovascular Function
  • Pulmonary Function
  • Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Changes in the Elderly
  • Multimodal Drug Therapy and the Elderly
  • Physiology and the Perception of Pain in the Elderly and Clinical Implications
  • Assessment of Pain in Older Cognitively Impaired Patients
  • Considerations for the Use of Peripheral Regional and Neural Blockade in Elderly Patients
  • Epidural Anesthesia and Analgesia
  • Intrathecal Opioid Analgesia
  • Regional Anesthesia and Analgesia Using Peripheral Nerve and Nerve Plexus Blockade
  • Summary
  • References

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NYSORA Compendium of Regional Anesthesia

NYSORA Compendium of Regional Anesthesia is the GOLD-STANDARD text for a comprehensive and practical approach to regional anesthesia techniques and patient management.