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Axillary Brachial Plexus Block


Figure 1: The needle is inserted toward the axillary artery (line) until either motor response of the hand or arterial blood on aspiration is obtained. Essentials Indications: forearm and hand surgery Landmarks: axillary artery pulse Any of the following three…

Truncal and Cutaneous Blocks

Ultrasound Guided Techniques

A C B D Figure 1: (A) Transducer position and needle insertion to accomplish a transverse abdominal plane block. (B) Transducer position and needle insertion to accomplish iliohypogastric and ilioinguinal nerve blocks. (C) Transducer position and needle insertion to accomplish…

Intercostal Block


Figure 1: Intercostal nerve block: Patient position and needle insertion. Essentials Indications: thoracic or upper abdominal surgery, rib fractures, breast surgery Landmarks: angle of the rib (6-8 cm lateral to the spinous process) Needle insertion: Under the rib with approximately…

Infraclavicular Brachial Plexus Block

Upper Extermity

Figure 1: Patient position and needle insertion for infraclavicular brachial plexus block. Essentials Indications: elbow, forearm, hand surgery Landmarks: medial clavicular head, coracoid process Nerve stimulation: hand twitch at 0.2-0.5 mA Local anesthetic: 25-35 mL General Considerations The infraclavicular block…

Mechanisms and Management of Failed Spinal Anesthesia


Mechanisms and Management of Failed Spinal Anesthesia Based on Hadzic’s Textbook of RAPM 2nd Ed 2017John D. Rae and Paul D. W. Fettes INTRODUCTION In busy clinical practice it is not uncommon that an intrathecal injection of local anesthetic in…

Obturator Nerve Block

Lower Extermity

Obturator nerve block is used to treat hip joint pain and in the relief of adductor muscle spasm associated with hemi-or paraplegia. Muscle spasticity is relatively common problem among patients suffering from central neurological problems such as cerebrovascular pathology, medullar injuries, multiple sclerosis, infantile cerebral palsy, etc.

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Ultrasound Guided Femoral Nerve Block
Thoracic Paravertebral Block
Continuous Thoracic Paravertebral Block
Ultrasound-Guided Infraclavicular Brachial Plexus Block
Axillary Brachial Plexus Block
Stellate Ganglion
Suprascapular Nerve
Bier Block
Bier Block
Sciatic Nerve Block: Anterior / Transgluteal / Subgluteal Approach