Landmark Based

Spinal Anesthesia

Introduction with General Considerations & Brief History Carl Koller, an ophthalmologist from Vienna, first described the use of topical cocaine for analgesia of the eye in ... Full story

Lumbar Plexus Block

Authors: Manoj Karmakar and Catherine Vandepitte Introduction Lumbar plexus block (LPB) traditionally is performed using surface anatomic landmarks to identify the site for needle insertion and eliciting ... Full story

Thoracic Paravertebral Block

Figure 1: Thoracic paravertebral block Essentials Indications: breast surgery, analgesia after thoracotomy or in patients with rib fractures Landmarks: spinous process at the desired thoracic dermatomal level Needle ... Full story

Intercostal Block

Figure 1: Intercostal nerve block: Patient position and needle insertion. Essentials Indications: thoracic or upper abdominal surgery, rib fractures, breast surgery Landmarks: angle of the ... Full story

Thoraco Lumbar Paravertebral Block

Overview  Indications: Inguinal hernia surgery, lateral abdominal wall surgery  Landmarks:                      Spinal processes T9-L5 (the number and location of levels chosen for each indication)                      Transverse process  Needle insertion: 2 cm lateral ... Full story

Continuous Thoracic Paravertebral Block

Overview  Indications: Breast surgery, pain management after thoracic surgery or rib fractures  Landmarks:                      Spinal process at the desired thoracic dermatomal levels                      Needle insertion: 2.5 cm lateral to midline  Target goal: ... Full story

Caudal Anesthesia

Caudal anesthesia was first described at the turn of last century by two French physicians, Fernand Cathelin and Jean-Anthanase Sicard. The technique predated the lumbar ... Full story