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Foundations of RA

Local Anesthetics: Clinical Pharmacology and Rational Selection

Author: Jeff Gadsden  Local anesthetics (LAs) prevent or relieve pain by interrupt- ing nerve conduction. They bind to specific receptor sites on the sodium (Na+) channels ... Full story

Regional Anesthesia in the Anticoagulated Patient

AUTHOR: Honorio T. Benzon Intraspinal Hematoma The incidence of intraspinal hematoma is approximately 0.1 per 100,000 patients per year.(1) It is more likely to occur in anticoagulated ... Full story

Electrical Nerve Stimulators and Localization of Peripheral Nerves

Ali Nima Shariat, Patrick M. Horan, Kimberly Gratenstein, Colleen McCally, and Ashton P. Frulla History of Electrical Nerve Stimulation Quick Facts 1780: Galvani (1) was the first to ... Full story

Monitoring and Documentation

AUTHOR: Jeff Gadsden Introduction The incidence of complications from general anesthesia has diminished substantially in recent decades, largely due to advances in respiratory monitoring. (1) The ... Full story

Essentials of Regional Anesthesia Anatomy

--- Authors: Admir Hadzic and Carlo Franco A good practical knowledge of anatomy is important for the successful and safe practice of regional anesthesia. In ... Full story

Toxicity of Local Anesthetics

AUTHORS: Steven Dewaele, Alan C. Santos Introduction Systemic toxicity of local anesthetics can occur after administration of an excessive dose, with rapid absorption, or because of an ... Full story

Neurologic Complications of Peripheral Nerve Blocks

Author: Jeff Gadsden Nerve injury following peripheral nerve blockade (PNB) is a potentially devastating complication that can result in permanent disability. (1) Data from a recent ... Full story

Continuous Peripheral Nerve Blocks in Outpatients

Introduction - Single-injection nerve blocks provide up to 16 hours of postoperative analgesia - Portable infusion pumps allow outpatients to receive continuous nerve blocks More than 40% of ... Full story

Indications for Peripheral Nerve Blocks

AUTHOR: Jeff Gadsden Introduction During the past 20 years, increasing knowledge in functional regional anesthesia anatomy, coupled with new technologies for locating peripheral nerves, has resulted in ... Full story

Equipment for Peripheral Nerve Blocks

Ali Nima Shariat, Patrick M. Horan, Kimberly Gratenstein, Colleen McCally, and Ashton P. Frulla Introduction Over the past several decades, regional anesthesia equipment has undergone ... Full story